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Chemical reactions in a cell

What are the folds in mitochondrial membranes called?
B. cristae
The gel-like fluid substance within a mitochondrion is called the
A. matrix.
The sum of all of the chemical reactions that occur in a cell collectively are called
D. metabolism.
In a metabolic pathway, substrate Z is broken down to form product Y and X. Y is further broken down into products V and W. How many enzymes are required for this metabolic pathway?
B. two
Why is glycolysis believed to have evolved early in the history of life?
C. It is present in most every type of cell.

Which of the following steps in the breakdown of glucose does not require oxygen?
A. glycolysis

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What is the maximum number of ATP molecules produced during aerobic respiration?
A. 38
Only glucose can be used as an energy source in the human body.
List, in order, the stages of aerobic cellular respiration.
Cellular respiration begins with glycolysis. The resulting pyruvates are modified and then moved into the citric acid cycle within the matrix of the mitochondria. The resulting NADH molecules from glycolysis are then moved to the electron transport chain in which they deliver electrons. The electrons are passed down the electron transport chain, producing ATP and ultimately combining with oxygen.

The first day of football practice was rough on the squad. During practice the players complained of cramps and sore muscles. The reason for their complaints was that there was a ______ build up in their muscles.
E. lactate
Explain what occurs during endocytosis.
During endocytosis a portion of the plasma membrane invaginates and forms a pouch in order to envelop a substance and fluid. As the membrane folds inward it will eventually pinch itself together forming a vesicle containing the substance or fluid inside of the cell.
Since all organisms carry on cellular respiration, all living cells must contain mitochondria
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If the mitochondrion is the result of endosymbiosis, what membrane of the mitochondrion represents the engulfing vesicle?
A. the outer mitochondrial membrane
Fermentation produces more ATP than does aerobic respiration.
When ATP is broken down, heat is released.
If you could remove all the phosphate in the cell, what would happen to the ATP cycle?
A. It would stop when all the ATP had been converted into ADP.
__ are the fundamental units that make up all living things.
B. Cells
The size of a metabolizing cell is limited by its
D.surface area to volume ratio
Whose work proved conclusively that spontaneous generation of life from nonlife was not possible?
A. Louis Pasteur

The reason that metabolizing cells are small in size is because
B. the surface area of a cell must be able to accomplish nutrient/waste exchange.

In developing embryos such as a chicken, what restores the amount of surface area needed for exchange requirements?
D. cell division
If a cell has a volume of 3nm, what are the surface area and the volume of the cell?
C. 54nm2, 27nm3
What is the name of a photograph of a specimen obtained with a microscope?
D. micrograph
Viruses are not made up of cells. According to cell theory, this means what?
D. Viruses are not living
Brett needs to distinguish two points that are 0.5 mm apart. What is the easiest way to do this?
C. Use his eyes.
The light microscope has a resolving power of
C. 0.0001 mm.
What type of microscopy provides a three-dimensional view of the surface of an object?
C. scanning electron microscope
Angela would like to look at living algae from pond water. What type of equipment should she use?
A. compound light microscope
Biologists classify cells into two broad categories–animals and plants.
Which of the following structures are present in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes?
A. plasma membrane
Because bacteria are prokaryotes, they do not have DNA.
The phospholipid bilayer that surrounds/maintains the integrity of a cell is called a
A. plasma membrane.
What is the name of the semi-fluid medium inside the cell?
B. cytoplasm
The cytoplasm is not considered a cellular organelle.
The plasma membrane contains how many layers of phospholipids?
B. two
Paleontologists have discovered ancient prokaryotic fossils dated at over 3.5 billion years old. These fossils resemble prokaryotes that are capable of living in extreme conditions such as high temperature and salinity. What domain do these prokaryotes belong to?
C. Archaea
All of the following are possible origins of cell organelles in eukaryotes EXCEPT
E. groups of prokaryotic cells begin to live in a small group sharing products of metabolism.

Archaea are considered the evolutionary precursors to eukaryotic cells.
In the fluid-mosaic model of the plasma membrane, the phospholipid molecules are oriented so that the _ heads are facing the outside environment and the ____
B. hydrophilic, hydrophobic

Which of the following is not a function of the plasma membrane?
D. contains the genetic information

Which model currently describes the structure of the plasma membrane?
B. fluid-mosaic model
A short chain of sugar attached to a protein molecule on the plasma membrane is called
E. a glycoprotein.

Which of the following can cross the plasma membrane because of its selective permeability?
A. gases such as oxygen and carbon dioxide

The movement of water across a semi-permeable membrane is called
B. osmosis.

During a hurricane, salt water invades fresh water marshes causing many of the plants to die. The plants are killed because the salt water solution is ______ to the plants, drawing water from their cells.
E. hypertonic

What is the function of cholesterol in the plasma membrane?
C. support

A solution is at equilibrium across a plasma membrane. If 50 molecules were to enter the cell, how many molecules would need to exit the cell in order to maintain the equilibrium?
A. 50

Often when a person is admitted to the hospital, an intravenous solution of normal saline is begun. Since this does not harm the patient, what is the tonicity of normal saline compared to your blood
B. isotonic

Choose the CORRECT statement about solute concentrations or particles inside and outside the cell.
C. In an isotonic solution the amount of water inside and outside the cell is equal.

Brad placed a drop of blood in some distilled water. What happened in the red blood cells?
B. The cells burst.

The assisted transport of a molecule across the cell membrane without an expenditure of energy is known as what?
B. facilitated transport

In the sodium potassium pump, sodium and potassium are both pumped out of the cell via active transport.

Which of the following does not utilize active transport?
A. movement of oxygen from the lungs into the blood

Sheree observed an amoeba feeding by engulfing the prey with its false feet or pseudopods. This process is known as
B. phagocytosis.

During exocytosis, the phospholipids present in the vesicle membrane will end up in the plasma membrane.

Which of the following processes moves large molecules across a membrane in the opposite direction of the others?
A. exocytosis

What cell structure is composed of a stack of slightly curved saccules that are important in packaging and secretion?
C. Golgi apparatus

What is the obvious dark-stained structure within the nucleus that contains ribosomal RNA called?
B. nucleolus

The grainy-looking substance inside the nucleus is composed of
B. DNA and proteins.

The nucleus of a cell in your thigh muscle contains the same genes as the nucleus of a cell in your brain.

How large is a nuclear pore in the nuclear envelope?
A. larger than a ribosome

If a cell lacked ribosomes, it would not be able to
B. synthesize proteins.

What components make up the ribosomes?
A. proteins and rRNA

What do the SER and RER have in common?
B. the formation of transport vesicles

What is the main function of the ribosomes in the cell?
A. to synthesize proteins

Which of the following would be a way of finishing this hypothesis about the function of the Golgi apparatus? If the Golgi apparatus is involved in packaging products for secretion, then
A. vesicles must travel from the Golgi to the cell surface

Which organelle can be likened to a post office?
E. Golgi apparatus

What cellular organelle is especially abundant in phagocytic white blood cells?
D. lysosomes

Which of the following is not associated with the cytoskeleton?
C. microbodies

Which of the following protein fibers is used for cellular movement and are extremely thin in size?
A. actin filaments

Centrosomes are associated with
D. microtubules.

Which protein filaments are bundled together to form cilia?
A. microtubules

Which of the following is not a function of the cytoskeleton?
B. process proteins

Which structure in the human body will use flagella to move?
A. sperm

A malfunction with the microtubules would interfere with mitosis and meiosis.

Explain the functions of adhesion junctions, gap junctions, and tight junctions in human cells.
Adhesion junctions serve to mechanically attach adjacent cells to each other. This type of junction allows movement of molecules between connected cells. It forms a porous type of barrier.
Gap junctions serve to communicate information between cells. It forms a channel that allows for the rapid movement of molecules from one cell to the next.
Tight junctions make solid connections between adjacent cells. These cells form a solid barrier.

Which of the following diseases would you expect in someone with malfunctioning cilia?
A. recurrent respiratory infections

Which type of junctions must there be between cells to form a barrier?
C. tight junctions

Cilia are composed of microtubules while flagella are composed of actin filaments.

In an experiment in the laboratory, a small colored molecule is injected into one cell. Within minutes, the molecule has entered the adjacent cells. What type of junctions connect these cells?
A. gap junctions

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