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Criminal Justice

Question 1

A victim refers to an individual subjected adverse effects resulting from an external force or agent. The process by which the external power or agent makes an individual a victim is referred to as victimization. Victimology refers to the study of victimization. The study includes an analysis of the psychological effects of the process on victims. It also analyses the relationship between victims and offender. in addition, it studies the interaction between the victims and the criminal justice system. Victimology also focuses on the connections between the victims and other social institutions, including social movements, social media, and businesses (Pemberton, Mulder & Aarten, 2019). The study concentrates explicitly on determining various ways in which the behaviors of the victims could have contributed to their victimization. Criminology refers to the study of crime and deviant behavior. It relies on various research practices conducted in the fields of social anthropologists, sociology, philosophy, psychology, biology, and law.

The theory of victimology should be a subset of criminology rather than being studied independently. Criminology studies the entire spectrum of deviant behaviors from various approaches.  The theory of victimology consequently fits in this criminology subject as it focuses on the multiple ways in which the behaviors of the victims could lead to victimization. The theory suggests that the outside forces that face the individuals are probably criminal forces. The study also focuses on the interactions of the criminal justice system victims, a factor that also forms a part of criminology study. Studying the theory of victimology as a part of the criminology study is facilitating the understanding of how social institutions could lead to crime. It consequently promotes the prevention of crimes associated with the social institutions.

Question 2

The theory applicable for drug users to engage in crime to get money to use for the drugs is the moral model theory. According to the theory, drug addiction is a behavior that violates the moral, legal and religious codes of ethics. It suggests that drug addiction results from an immoral act that is freely chosen by an individual. The preferred behavior, in most cases, is unethical, illegal and sinful. The actions in which the drug users engage are mainly thought to be the result of the absence of self-restraint and self-discipline.

The theory applicable to a professional burglar is the rational choice theory. The theory relies on the utilitarian belief, suggesting that human beings are rational actors. It indicates that before individuals involve in various, they consider the benefits and the adverse effects of the actions (Paternoster, Jaynes, & Wilson, 2017). The theory suggests that individuals are only likely to engage in an action in the case the benefit outweighs the detrimental aspects. The theory suggests that a professional burglar is only likely to participate in an activity in the case that the perceived benefits of the action outweigh the possible punishment.

Although the theories apply to the same crime, they are essentially different.  The moral model theory only focusses on the gains and fails to take the possible punishments in consideration. As projected, engagement in the activity is mainly explained by the theory’s explanation, suggesting that the crime is committed due to the absence of self-control. In the rational choice theory, the criminal can practice self-control following the identified desirable course of action.  Before the criminal engages in the undesirable activity, there is the elaborate measures of the gains and losses, to ensure that the benefits outweigh the losses.




Pemberton, A., Mulder, E., & Aarten, P. G. (2019). Stories of injustice: Towards a narrative victimology. European Journal of criminology16(4), 391-412.

Paternoster, R., Jaynes, C. M., & Wilson, T. (2017). Rational choice theory and interest in the “Fortune of Others”. Journal of research in crime and delinquency54(6), 847-868.

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