Pre-Interactional Expectations-knowledgeskills that communicator brings to interactionInteractional Expectations-an individual’s ability to carry out the interaction
Factors that Affect Appraisals of Expectancy Violations:
-Threat threshold: tolerance for distance violations-
Arousal: increased interest or attention when deviations from expectations occur-
Communicator Reward Valence: sum of + and – characteristics of a person and the potential for them to carry out rewards or punishments-
Violation Valence: perceived + or – value of a deviation from expectations
Perception: the process by which you filter and interpret what your senses relay so you cancreate a meaningful picture of the world.
Stages and influential factors of perception:
Selection Process-characteristics of the perceived and perceiver [p.o.v., presentneeds/purposes/goals, personal relevance, expectations]
Organization Process-proximity, similar, simplicity, experience, expectations
Interpretation Process-expectations, relative intensity, unique
Selection-General Traits: used to evaluate everyone and articulated
Specific Traits – used to evaluate only a few people and unarticulated
-Halo Effect•One positive trait perceived, assume other traits are also positive
Organization-Primacy Effect:initial information carries the most weight
-Recency Effect:most recent information carries the most weight
Assumptions of SI theory:
Humans act toward others on the basis of the meanings those others have for them
-Meaning is created in interaction between people
-Meaning is modified through an interpretive process
Self-Conceptsdevelop through interaction with others.
Self-Concepts providean importantmotive for behavior.
Self-esteemrefers to how we value our self-concept or who we are.
Self: the ability to reflect on ourselves from the perspective of others.
I: the subject or acting self that is spontaneous, impulsive and creative.
Me: the object or observing self that is reflective and socially aware.
Generalized other: the attitude of the whole community
Particular others: individuals who are significant to us
Looking-glass self:-imagine how we appear to others-imagine their judgment of our appearance-we feel hurt or pride based on these self-feelingsPygmalion Effect:living up or down to another person’s expectations of us.SI key concepts: Mind –ability to use symbols that have common social meanings, or the waypeople internalize societyThought –inner conversations with ourselves that help us to make sense of reality
Impression Formation Heuristics
Availability Heuristic→ we make inferences on person’s personality based on what easily comesto mind
Representativeness Heuristic→ when perceived traits match assumptions about other traits thanyou infer those other traits to be true
Simulation Heuristic→ try to imagine person behaving in a particular way and if you canimagine it than you accept that perception and you make an inference