Security and Intelligence in California

According to Barry Collin, a senior research fellow at the Institute for Security and Intelligence in California, “the convergence of the ‘virtual world’ and ‘physical world’ form the vehicle of cyber terrorism.” Collin further clarifies that, “the virtual world is the place in which computer programs function and data moves whereas the physical world is the place in which we live and function.” (Colin, 1996) In the information age, the maritime transportation system has become increasingly reliant on Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Vessels navigation systems, safety equipment, cargo computers, and automated engine rooms have become so advanced that some large cargo carriers can operate with a crew size of twelve (or less).

Unfortunately the ever increasing progress in technology creates more and more avenues of cyber-attack. “In 2014, the IMO consulted their membership on what maritime cyber security guidelines should look like. Two years later they issued their interim cyber security risk management guidelines, which are broad and not particularly maritime specific. And now, unsurprisingly, ships are being hacked.” (Martin and Hopcraft, 2018). In 2018 Ken Munro, who owns a white hat hacker company called Pen Test Partners, showed that vessels could be used to block the English Channel by hacking into their navigation systems. “The attack targets a computer-powered navigation system called the Electronic Chart Display (ECDIS), which provides crews an alternative to using paper charts.” (Kelion, 2018) Furthermore, “A French researcher, who goes by the nickname x0rz, had earlier demonstrated that many ships never changed their satellite communications equipment’s default username and password, and that it was relatively easy to find cases via an app to gain remote access.” (Kelion, 2018). Steven Caponi and Kate Belmont, cyber security experts for Blank Rome LLP, state that, “cyber security on board merchant vessels and at major ports is 10-20 years behind the curve compared with office-based computer systems and competing industries throughout the world.” (Caponi and Belmont, 2015)

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
Security and Intelligence in California
Just from $13/Page
Order Essay

Increasing the importance of cyber security to businesses is essential. Large vessels have the potential to block waterways, cause huge oil or chemical spills, and carry goods to areas dependent on supplies. “Responsibility to actively defend against the risks of a cyber-attack and be in a position to effectively respond to an incident rests squarely on the shoulders of individual ship owners, shipping companies, port operators, and others involved in the maritime industry. The failure to assume this responsibility undoubtedly will lead to serious and potentially devastating consequences, including government fines, direct losses, third party liability, lost customers, and reputational damage that cannot be repaired.” (Caponi and Belmont, 2015) It is the responsibility of government agencies such as the Coast Guard and Customs and Border Protection to not only create regulations but also create incentives to improve security posture. Security agencies should encourage sharing information on threats, self-regulating security consortiums, and providing benefits for going above and beyond the bare minimum security measures. Additionally, “Companies looking to learn more about the steps they can take to meet the evolving cyber threat head-on should consult with cyber security professionals and available literature. Widely available resources include the National Institute of Standards and Technology, which issues the Framework for Improving Critical Infrastructure Cyber security and the National Infrastructure Protection Plan, developed pursuant to the Homeland Security Act of 2002 and Homeland Security Presidential Directive 7.” (Caponi and Belmont, 2015). Only coordinated efforts between industry and government can overcome the current shortcomings of cyber security of the maritime industry.


Collin, B. L. (1996). The Future of Cyberterrorism: Where the Physical and Virtual Worlds Converge. Annual International Symposium Criminal Justice Issues. vol. 93, no. 4. Retrieved from:…

Martin, K. and Hopcraft, R. (2018). Why 50,000 ships are so vulnerable to cyberattacks. The Conversation. Retrieved from:

Kelion, L. (2018). Ship hack ‘risks chaos in English Channel’. BBC News. Retrieved from:

Caponi, S. L. and Belmont, K. B. (2015). Intellectual Property & Technology Law Journal; Clifton.Vol. 27, Iss. 1. Retrieved from:…


 homeland security  short discussion response description 1 pages, Double Spacing bookmark Amercian Homeland Security

Chegg Answers
Calculate your paper price
Pages (550 words)
Approximate price: -

Why Work with CheggAnswers

Quality Essays

At, we boast of our quick turnaround that is facilitated by our experienced team of writers. We can handle both short and long deadlines, as per our clients’ requests. Quality work is the cornerstone of our service.

Top Writers

Our writers are qualified professionals who are well-versed with more than 80 subjects. We have achieved this milestone overtime because of our rigorous hiring process that filters professionals from average writers. We believe that exposing our customers to qualified writers is the starting point of delivering quality work.

Plagiarism-Free Papers

Our writers submit papers that are written from scratch to uphold the much-needed originality when submitting your papers. Our references are mainly sourced from reputable databases such as Emerald Insight, Ebsco, and ProQuest. All papers follow the conventional styles of referencing that include APA, MLA, Chicago, Harvard, and Vancouver.

24/7 Customer Support

The customer is king and as such, has a committed support department that handles all concerns and clarifications from our clients. We encourage customers to contact us at any given time through our listed telephone, email, and text platforms.

Prompt Delivery & 100% Money Back Guarantee

Your work starts immediately after placing an order. Our writers are aware of our company policy that guarantees quality work to all our customers. For this reason, CheggAnswers strives to deliver assignments on time to avoid any delays that might compromise our relationship with clients.

Free Revisions

Although we are confident in our writers, you are entitled to free revisions whenever need arises. However, we highly disregard customers who misuse this privilege.

Try it now!

Calculate the price of your order

Total price:

How it works?

Follow these simple steps to get your paper done

Place your order

Fill in the order form and provide all details of your assignment.

Proceed with the payment

Choose the payment system that suits you most.

Receive the final file

Once your paper is ready, we will email it to you.

Our Services

We offer a wide range of services that are aligned with the customers’ needs and expectations. We have positioned ourselves strategically to become a one-stop-shop where customers can access all academic services under one roof.


Academic Writing

Our main service is academic paper writing, which is handled by a pool of experienced writers who uphold the expected standards of writing. Over the years, we have delivered quality work to our clients because of our commitment to promote quality over quantity.


Admission Essays

Whether you are about to Join College or you are a continuing student, CheggAnswers is there to help. Our competent professionals will solve all your writing problems. Personalization is key to scoring highly and satisfying the admission board’s expectations. We will help you achieve your academic goals.


Editing & Proofreading

Some of our clients prefer to write their essays and have a third-party like CheggAnswers proofread their work. We have a skilled team of editors who comb through your paper and make any amends to increase its overall appeal. For all your editing and proofreading needs, CheggAnswers is there to help.


Revision Support

At CheggAnswers, we offer an extensive revision support that works tirelessly to ensure that customer needs and expectations are met. We work closely with writers upon a customer’s revision request to ensure that we keep our promise of delivering quality work to all our clients.