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Standardized Terminology and Language in Informatics

Standardized Terminology and Language in Informatics is an important part of healthcare. Nurses and healthcare workers need to understand and be able to communicate clearly. Please select one of the following options and discuss your understanding of the role in healthcare and its potential impact on your practice.

Meaningful Use
Reimbursement from Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) payment
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Usability is a subset of HCI and one of its major components. The term usabilityis often used interchangeably with HCI. More formally, the classic definition is given by the international technical standard titled ISO 9241-11. Usability focuses on specific users and their goals for a specific context. It is the extent that a product can be used by users in their particular context to achieve their goals with effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction (International Organization for Standardization, 1998). That is, a usable product is one that allows users to achieve specific goals with a product in a specific context. Usability is multidimensional, including topics such as:

Using a mHealth application safely, efficiently, and effectively.
How well HIT supports the way users think and work.
The effort needed to learn a system.
How easy it is to remember how to use technology after time has elapsed.
User satisfaction with any product.
How long it takes to enter clinical notes after a patient visit or how to arrange simultaneous documentation during a visit.
How to design error-free/error-forgiving interactions.
Seamless fit of an information system to the task(s) at hand.
Ease of use is a rather vague notion that can imply many factors, from having a suitable screen layout and easy navigation in a system to understanding what the system is doing during interactions and having appropriate language for users within a particular context. A health informaticist can assist in determining which aspects contribute to a usable product in given settings.

The Goals of Usability
The broad goals of usability are promoting acceptance and use of systems through improved effectiveness (including safety), efficiency, and satisfaction. These goals are achieved by optimizing the use of interactive systems and software, developing new kinds of applications to support specific work, and promoting job optimization with the use of HIT. A user interface can effectively disappear if a system is designed well. This allows users to focus only on the task at hand rather than tending to the technology itself.

Usability experts cite three main goals of HCI and usability: effectiveness; efficiency; and user satisfaction. Effectiveness is related to the usefulness of a technology in completing desired goals. It includes completeness, accuracy, and flow of information; that is, how well the function matches a user’s cognitive flow of information, the flow of information among a group of users, and/or the optimal allocation of functions between human and computer.

Of course, in life-critical systems, such as a fetal-uterine monitor or medication orders, the safety of the application is paramount. For example, the accurate transfer of physiological monitoring data to an information system in labor and delivery, or the accurate display of patient medications in eMARs, is imperative.

The efficiency of systems deals with the expenditures of resources, where resources are time, productivity, error rates of users, or the costs of the system, to the organization in terms of value of the product compared to the purchase price, little-used options, or redesign of applications. Learnability is related to productivity, because better-designed systems can take less time to learn and remember.

A classic way user satisfaction can be assessed is by measuring user perceptions about the efficiency or effectiveness of interactions with the system. Users’ perceptions about usability and the perceived benefits of using systems are components of satisfaction and can enhance application acceptance and use.

The Axioms of Usability
HCI authors agree on three classic axioms of usability, often called user-centered design processes, or UCD (Dix et al., 2004; Rubin & Chisnell, 2008):

An early and central focus on users in the design and development of systems.
Iterative design of applications.
Systematic usability measures or observations of users interacting with information systems.
Researchers published these principles in the 1980s (Gould & Lewis, 1985). They remain pertinent and widely quoted today. An early and central focus on users means understanding users in-depth. Informaticists will want direct contact with users early and often throughout a design or redesign process. Iterative design means having rounds of design and allowing users to evaluate prototypes to determine their effectiveness and efficiency. One design is never sufficient (Nielsen, 1993). Typically, at least three rounds (or more) are necessary. Users are central to determining requirements. Once a design is available, informaticists work with users to determine issues with effectiveness and efficiency. Major usability problems can then be corrected by developers. Design and evaluation occurs in a recurring cycle. Authors stress the need for structured and systematic observations, even empirical assessments, of users as they interact with technology.

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Book used in the class: Hebda, T., Hunter, K., & Czar, P. (2019). Handbook of informatics for nurses & healthcare professionals (6th ed.). New York, NY: Pearson

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